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Chapters 2 & 3



equally valid for other countries; that is, nations with similar resources of a comparable or younger post-conflict or post-independence age. This book presents well-established political models and how they apply to Africa. The opening chapters offer a good foundation for those unfamiliar with electoral and parliamentary models of the world and also consider the use, failings, unsuitability and corruption of such models throughout the African continent. Thus the early sections are recommended reading even for the most politically aware reader as they contain material referenced in the later sections of the text. Following the basic reference of political models and how they apply to Africa, the text then turns its attentions to Southern Africa, presenting social responsibilities, views and issues, and the important role they play in the successful governing and stability of any nation. After considering these social issues, having presented the reader with the standard selection of electoral models while putting forward views regarding why they are unsuitable for Africa and before offering practical alternatives, the text examines successful forms of governing. Theoretical and specific examples are reviewed as a means of identifying key ingredients needed to achieve suitable alternatives for the choice of electoral model and an acceptable resulting system of governance. The final chapters present a proposed alternative model for a successful system of governance, with particular reference to Zimbabwe and the rest of the Southern Africa. Reference is made throughout the text to the failings of the political models of many African countries, with Nigeria and Zimbabwe often presented as specific examples. Such reference is in no way intended to belittle or criticise these countries or their people. In fact the opposite is the case